Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.
Akhaven T, Anderson GH.
Department of Nutritional Sciencees, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov.86(5):1354-63.
BACKGROUND: The greater prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the past 35 y has been attributed to the replacement of sucrose in the food supply with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of solutions containing sucrose, HFCS, or various ratios of glucose to fructose (G:F) on food intake (FI), average appetite (AA), blood glucose (BG), plasma insulin, ghrelin, and uric acid (UA) in men.
DESIGN: Sugar solutions (300 kcal/300 mL) were (in %) G20:F80, HFCS 55 (G45:F55), sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 1, n = 12) and G20:F80, G35:F65, G50:F50, sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 2, n = 19). The controls were a sweet energy-free control (experiment 1) and water (both experiments). Solutions were provided in a repeated-measures design. AA, BG, and FI were measured in all subjects. Hormonal responses and UA were measured in 7 subjects in experiment 2. Measurements were taken from baseline to 75 min. FI was measured at 80 min.
RESULTS: Sucrose and HFCS (experiment 1) and sucrose and G50:F50 (experiment 2) had similar effects on all dependent measures. All sugar solutions similarly reduced the AA area under the curve (AUC). FI and plasma UA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower after high-glucose solutions than after low-glucose solutions. The lower FI was associated with a greater BG AUC (P < 0.05) and smaller AA and ghrelin AUCs (P < 0.01). Insulin and BG AUCs were positively associated (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Sucrose, HFCS, and G50:F50 solutions do not differ significantly in their short-term effects on subjective and physiologic measures of satiety, UA, and FI at a subsequent meal.